**The national curriculum for computing aims to ensure that all pupils:**

· can understand and apply the fundamental principles and concepts of computer science, including abstraction, logic, algorithms and data representation.

· can analyse problems in computational terms, and have repeated practical experience of writing computer programs in order to solve such problems.

· can evaluate and apply information technology, including new or unfamiliar technologies, analytically to solve problems.

· are responsible, competent, confident and creative users of information and communication technology.

**Pupils should be taught to:**

· design, use and evaluate computational abstractions that model the state and behaviour of real-world problems and physical systems.

· understand several key algorithms that reflect computational thinking [for example, ones for sorting and searching]; use logical reasoning to compare the utility of alternative algorithms for the same problem.

· use two or more programming languages, at least one of which is textual, to solve a variety of computational problems; make appropriate use of data structures [for example, lists, tables or arrays]; design and develop modular programs that use procedures or functions.

· understand simple Boolean logic [for example, AND, OR and NOT] and some of its uses in circuits and programming; understand how numbers can be represented in binary, and be able to carry out simple operations on binary numbers [for example, binary addition, and conversion between binary and decimal].

· understand the hardware and software components that make up computer systems, and how they communicate with one another and with other systems.

· understand how instructions are stored and executed within a computer system; understand how data of various types (including text, sounds and pictures) can be represented and manipulated digitally, in the form of binary digits.

· undertake creative projects that involve selecting, using, and combining multiple applications, preferably across a range of devices, to achieve challenging goals, including collecting and analysing data and meeting the needs of known users.

· create, re-use, revise and re-purpose digital artefacts for a given audience, with attention to trustworthiness, design and usability.

· understand a range of ways to use technology safely, respectfully, responsibly and securely, including protecting their online identity and privacy; recognise inappropriate content, contact and conduct and know how to report concerns.